1. Check yourself first: If you have been injured in the accident, first check yourself for any injuries. Try to assess how well you can move your limbs, and if you experience symptoms such as dizziness etc. Remember you need to be fit enough to help the others.
2.Check the other person(s) for injuries: If other people are injured, first assess the extent of his/ her injuries. For e.g. is he bleeding from the head, neck, arms legs, abdomen back etc. Perform a quick assessment of the situation and see which victim needs the most help.
3. Look for signs of breathing: Next, check if the person is breathing and if he has a pulse.
4. Call for help: Immediately call for an ambulance or rush the person to a hospital.
5. Check for obstructions in the person’s mouth and throat: If you do not hear any breath sounds, check his/her mouth for any obstructions. If there is something obstructing the airway, use your index and middle finger to clear the airway.
6. Perform life saving techniques: If there is no pulse, start CPR. Keep the person’s neck straight to start EAR (External Air Resuscitation) or CPR (Cardio pulmonary resuscitation). There are 3 types of EAR; Mouth-to-mouth, Mouth-to-Nose, Mouth-to-Mask.
7. Put the patient in recovery position: If there is bleeding from the mouth or the patient is vomiting, turn the person to his/her side. This will avoid any chances of the person choking.
8. Deal with open wounds: If there are extensive wounds, try to control the bleeding using pressure to the area using a cloth. Press down with your palms rather than your finger tips.
9. Always suspect spinal injuries: If the person’s neck is in an awkward position (not normally placed) or the person is unconscious, do not move the patient. Get help immediately.
10. Keep the person warm: You can use whatever you have to do this, such as a T-shirt, jacket, etc.
11. Avoid feeding the person: Do not give the person any water, food or other fluids through the mouth, it could lead to the patient choking.